What we are doing to the environment is but a mirror reflection of what we are doing to ourselves and to one another
- Mahatma Gandhi
PROPOSAL FOR THE CONTROL OF ODOUR AND INSECT VECTORS LIKE FLIES AND MOSQUITOES IN MUNICIPAL DUMPING YARDS
What is Garbage?
Every individual generates wastes. The wastes can be from left-over foods, putrefying vegetables and meats to papers, plastics, metals and so on. According to one study, an average person generates about 2 kgs of solid wastes, every day. This means that an average metropolitan city with a population of 1 Million will generate 20 Lakh kilograms ( 2000 tons) of garbage evry day. Add to this other components like wastes from industries, carcasses
of dead animals, wastes from abattoirs and butcheries, wastes from vegetable markets, etc – the municipal administration of an average city will have to tackle a load of over 2500 tons of garbage every day.
How is garbage disposed?
Much of this garbage is used as landfills. A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump or dumping ground is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment. Historically, landfills have been the most common method of organized waste disposal and remain so in many places around the world.
However, with space running out and landfills becoming an environmental concern, some of the more enlightened municipalities have started using technology to convert organic wastes into manure and vermi-compost.
Why does garbage stink?
Whatever the manner of garbage disposal, however, one thing remains a nightmare for waste handlers and for communities living around garbage dumping grounds – the unbearable stink or stench arising from the gases released by decomposing (breakdown by bacteria) or putrefying organic wastes or by the volatization of liquid or solid wastes to vapour. These bacterial and chemical processes create gases that are unlikely to pose any serious health hazards, but they may cause odours that people find very unpleasant.
What makes garbage smell?
The municipal solid waste facility accepts household and nonhazardous commercial and industrial waste. It typically contains 60% organic material, such as food and paper. Because organic material tends to produce a great
deal of gas, municipal solid waste landfills have the potential to produce odours. Sulfides and ammonia are the most common sources of odour in landfill gas. Sulfides produce a strong, rotten egg smell that humans can detect even at very low concentrations. Ammonia produces a characteristic pungent odour. The gases produced also contains doses of methane.
What causes the release of foul-smelling gases from garbage?
The foul-smelling gases are released by the decomposition of organic matter contained in garbage wastes. Decomposition is a biological process that includes the physical breakdown and biochemical transformation of complex organic molecules of dead material into simpler organic and inorganic molecules (Juma, 1998). Decomposition is a natural action caused by a variety of bacteria. Some of these like Arthrobacter, Streptomyces, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Mucorare are involved in the decomposition of plant or vegetable matter. Others like different strains of Salmonella and E-coli are involved in the putrefaction of fecal matter and animal carcasses.
Some of these bacterial species are known as Probiotics. Probiotics are bacteria that are similar to the beneficial microorganisms naturally found in
the human gut. These “good bacteria” are used to prevent and alleviate many different conditions, but particularly those that affect the gastrointestinal tract.
On the other hand, microbes like Salmonella and E-coli a re disease causing. While Salmonella strains are identified as the biggest cause of typhoid, paratyphoid, and food poisoning (Salmonellosis), E-coli cause gastro-enteritis, diarrhoea and dysentery. The bacteria belonging to the species Vibrio cholerea is the cause of the deadly cholera disease which, as an epidemic, can be a killer. These harmful bacteria are transmitted from the putrefying garbage into the human food chain by a range of insect vectors like cockroaches, flies and mosquitoes, which proliferate in the wet and putrefying garbage.
What has to be done?
If mankind and animals are to be saved from the ill-effects of the diseases caused by putrefying garbage a two-fold strategy has to be adopted :
- Eliminate all harmful bacteria that are the cause for diseases
- Eliminate bacteria that release foul-smelling gases which cause contamination and pollution of the air, ground and water while ensuring that the good bacteria like probiotics are not eliminated, and
- Eliminate the menace of flies, mosquitoes and cockroaches that act as insect vectors transmitting the disease-causing microbes to the human household.
What is the solution?
The most effective solution is the deployment of ECOCLEAN ODOUR CONTROL FORMULA and REPELL-F80 in tandem in municipal dumping yards and landfills to ensure the elimination of harmful bacteria and the disease carrying insects like flies and mosquitoes.
ECOCLEAN ODOUR CONTROL FORMULA
Ecoclean Odour Control Formula is a proprietary reagent exclusively developed after decades of intensive research by the scientists of Ecohealth Products Pvt Ltd to bring an end to the menace of smell pollution caused by decomposing garbage at garbage dumps and landfills.
It has been formulated using extracts from nature’s most effective anti-bacterial herb, the Neem and making it into an easily usable, water-soluble reagent by treating with the appropriate organic solvents and chelating agents.
The details of the anti-bacterial action of Neem are given in the scientific study annexed titled “Neem as an Anti-Bacterial reagent”.
FLY AND MOSQUITO CONTROL FORMULA
Repell-F80 is a proprietary reagent exclusively developed after decades of intensive research by the scientists of Ecohealth Products Pvt Ltd to bring an end to the menace of insect vectors like flies, mosquitoes and cockroaches breeding in decomposing garbage at garbage dumps and landfills and bringing disease germs to households.
Repell-F80 is a formulation of certain specific extracts from Neem oil, which, when mixed in the right proportion with the appropriate organic solvents can bring about an end to the proliferation of flies.
Long before synthetic chemicals and commercial insecticides and fertilizers were available, Neem derivatives were used in Indian villages to protect and nourish crops. Scientific research has shown that Neem extracts can influence nearly 400 species of insects.
It is significant that some of these pests are resistant to pesticides, or are inherently difficult to control with conventional pesticides. (floral thrips, diamond back moth and several leaf miners). Most Neem products belong to the category of medium to broad spectrum pesticides, i.e., they are effective over a wide range of pests.
Using neem derivatives for managing pests is a non-violent approach to controlling pests. Neem products work by intervening at several stages of the insect's life. They may not kill the pest instantaneously but incapacitate it in several ways. Neem very subtly employs effects such as repellence, feeding and ovipositional deterrence, growth inhibition, mating disruption, chemo-sterilization, etc. These are now considered far more desirable than a quick knock-down in integrated pest management programs as they reduce the risk of exposing pests' natural enemies to poisoned food or starvation.
The details about the insecticidal action of neem along with its safety on humans and animals is attached in the annexure titled “Neem as an Insecticide”.